Relative clauses (придаточные определительные предложения)



Relative clauses (придаточные определительные предложения)


Subject or object

Relative clauses give extra information about a noun in the main clause.

Relative clauses begin with a relative pronoun

(who, which, that, whom, whose).

The relative pronoun can refer to the subject of the clause.

-That's the woman who bought my car.

The woman (subject) bought my car (object).

Or the relative pronoun can refer to the object of the clause.

-This is the car that I used to own.

I (subject) used to own the car (object).

Субъект или объект

Придаточные определительные предложения дают дополнительную информацию о существительном в главном предложении.
Придаточные определительные предложения начинаются с относительного местоимения      
(кто, что, тот, кого, чья).

Относительное местоимение может относиться к подлежащему в предложении.

-Это женщина, которая купила машину.

Женщина (субъект) купил свою машину (объект).

Или относительное местоимение может относиться к дополнению в предложении.

-Это автомобиль, который у меня был.

Я (субъект) владел автомобилем (объект).


Defining clauses give important information which tells us exactly what is being referred to.

-The book which you lent me is really good.


This indicates which book we are talking about. Without the relative clause, it might be difficult to understand the meaning.


• Определяющие предложения дают важную информацию, которая говорит нам, что именно имеется в виду.
-Книга, которую вы предоставили мне действительно хорошо.

Это указывает на ту книгу,о которой мы говорим. Без определяющего предложения, может быть трудно понять смысл.


Non-defining clauses add extra information. They are separated by commas in writing, and by a pause on either side (where the commas are) in speaking. We generally use which not that in non-defining clauses.


-The book, which I hadn't read, was still on the shelf. This gives extra information about the book.

We could miss out the relative clause and the meaning would still be clear.

Не определяющие

• Не определяющие предложения добавляют дополнительную информацию. Они разделены запятой в письменной форме, и паузой с каждой стороны (там, где запятые) в разговоре. Мы вообще используем which а не that в не определяющие предложениях.

- Книга, которую я не читал, по-прежнему лежала на полке.


Это дает дополнительную информацию о книге. Мы могли опустить не определяющее предложение, но смысл все равно будет понятным.

Omitting the relative pronoun

In a defining relative clause we can leave out the relative pronoun if it is the object of the clause.

-That's the car (that) I used to own. 

We cannot miss out the relative pronoun if it is the subject of the clause.


-That's the woman who bought my car.

In a non-defining relative clause we cannot leave out the relative pronoun.

-The book, which I hadn't read, was still on the shelf.

Опуская относительное местоимение

• В определяющем предложении мы можем опустить относительное местоимение, если оно является дополнением в предложении.

-Это автомобиль, который у меня был.

Мы не можем опустить относительное местоимение, если оно является подлежащим в предложении. 

 -Это женщина, которая купила машину.

• В не определяющих предложениях мы не можем опустить относительное местоимение.

 - Книга, которую я не читал, по-прежнему лежала на полке.

Which, who and that

That instead of which

When we talk about things, that is often used instead of which in defining clauses. This is very common in speech.

-Is this the house that you bought?

That instead of who

When we talk about people, that can be used instead of who in defining clauses.

-Have you met the boy that Sue is going to marry? 

Which in non-defining clauses

That cannot be used to introduce a non-defining clause.

-The hotel, which was a hundred years old, was very comfortable.


That cannot be used after a preposition.

-This is the car (that / which) I paid £2000 for. (speech)

-This is the car for which I paid £2000. (formal)

Который, кто и что

That вместо which 

Когда мы говорим о вещах, That часто используются вместо which в определяющем предложении. Это очень распространено в речи.

- Это тот дом, который вы купили?

That вместо who

Когда мы говорим о людях, that может быть использовано вместо who в определяющем предложении.

-Вы встретили молодого человека, за которого Сью выходит замуж?
Which в не определяющих предложениях
That не может быть использовано для введения не-определяющего предложения.

- Отель, которому было сто лет, был очень удобен.



That не может быть использовано после предлога.

-Это автомобиль (за который) я заплатил £ 2000.

(в речи)

-Это автомобиль ,за которую я заплатил 2000 фунтов стерлингов. (формально)

Whom and whose

Whom is generally used in writing.

-Smith was one of the men whom Jones had met earlier. (formal)

-Smith was one of the men (that / who) Jones had met earlier.(speech)

Whom has to be used after prepositions.

-This is the person (who) I sold my car to. (speech)

-This is the person to whom I sold my car. (formal)

Whose means of whom, and usually refers to people.

-This is Jack. His sister is staying with us.

-This is Jack, whose sister is staying with us.

Кому и чьё

Whom , как правило, используется в письменной речи.
Смит был одним из мужчин, с которым Джонс встречался ранее. (формально)

-Смит был одним из мужчин ,(с которым) Джонс встретился ранее. (в речи)

Whom должно быть использовано после предлогов.

-Это человек, (которому) я продал свой автомобиль.(в речи)

-Это человек, которому я продал свой автомобиль. (формально)

Whose означает чьё, и ,как правило, относится к людям.

-Это Джек. Его сестра остается с нами.

-Это Джек, чья сестра остается с нами.

Exercise 1: Fill in: who, whose, which or where.

My school, 1) __________ is called King Edward's, has about 2,000 students. My favourite teacher, 2)__________ is called Mr Brown, teaches sport. The sports centre, 3)____________ I play basketball and tennis, is the largest in the area. I walk to school every day with my friend Mike, 4)____________ father teaches History.

Exercise 2:

Make sentences as in the example. Use relative pronouns or relative adverbs.

Example: A painter is someone who paints pictures.

builder / someone / build houses • elephant / animal / ears are big

circus / place / can see acrobats

tiger / animal / live in jungle

supermarket / place / do shopping

Exercise 3 :

Fill in: who's or whose.

1 My mother,_________ name is Elizabeth, is a piano teacher.

2 She's the woman ________________married to an actor.

3 Celine is the girl ______________brother won the prize.

4 Helen is the person______________car is outside our house.

5 Ann's the one________________ a History teacher.

6 Lucas is the man ______________helping us move house.

7 That's the woman _____________son just graduated from university.

8 . ______________concert did you go to?

Exercise 4: 

Fill in the correct relative pronoun. What part of sentence is each, subject or object? Write S for subject and О for object, then state if the relatives can be omitted or not in the box provided.


Did you see the man __________stole her bag?


not. omitted


The dress__________ Mary bought yesterday is too big.




Please give me the keys______

are on the table.




Is that the man______________we saw in the park yesterday?




What's the name of the lady_____

babysits your little sister?




Klaus is playing with the dog____

lives next door.




Have you eaten all the cakes_____

I made yesterday?




How old is the man___________

owns that shop?




Have you met the man_________

Jackie is going to marry?




Let's all look at the picture______

is on page 7.




Has Peter returned the money____

he borrowed from you?




What colour is the dress ______

you're going to wear tonight?



Exercise 5 :

Write one word for each space.

Hi Janet,

How are you? I'm doing all right. just wanted to tell you 1)______________ something exciting2)________ happened to me last Saturday. Do you remember Beth, 3)_____________party we went to last winter? Well, I went 4) __________her and her cousin to a concert at Croke Park 5)___________my favourite band, Nickelback, were playing. Anyway, her cousin Rick knew someone 6) _________was working backstage and he let us meet the band. He even invited us to a party 7) ______________the band was going to after the concert. It was amazing! Now about the weekend hiking trip - the reason 8)______ I can't come is because my sister has asked me to take care of her children as she's 9)______________ on a business trip. I'm so sorry. I was really 10)_____ forward to it.

Write and tell me your news,


Exercise 6 :

Fill in the appropriate relative, say whether the relative clauses are essential or not to the meaning of the main sentence, then add commas where necessary.

  1. Paul Stevens___________ starred in Days went to school with my brother.

  2. The pen __________ I left on that table has disappeared.

  3. The woman_________ repairs our car is very friendly.

  4. David _________ grew up in Canada speaks French fluently.

  5. The man _______car was stolen has gone to the police station.

  6. Rye_________ my grandmother lives is near the sea.

  7. Oleg_________car has broken down is late for work.

  8. The Coliseum_________attracts many tourists is in Rome.

Exercise 7:

Fill in the relative pronoun or adverb. Put commas where necessary. Write D for defining, ND for non-defining and if the relative can be omitted or not in the box provided.


Mr Brown ,who__

teaches us French, comes from London.


not omitted


The girl___________

I met on the bus looks just like my sister.




Peter Smith_________

had an accident is in hospital.




The apples__________

grow on these trees are delicious.




This lemon pie______

I made yesterday tastes great.




The film__________

I saw on TV last night was very exciting.




My friend Akim_____

is a doctor works very long hours.





father is a lawyer has moved to Paris.




The sports centre____

we play tennis is expensive.




The vase .__________

Susan gave me got broken.




The summer______

I went to Spain was really hot.




The car____________

tyres are flat is mine.




The cafe___________

I first met my husband has closed down now.





mother is a vegetarian doesn't eat meat.




The bakery_________

is by my house sells wonderful pies.



Exercise 8:

a) Translate the sentences into English.

1. Художник, который нарисовал эту картину, жил в 19 веке.

2. Книга, которую ты прочитал летом, действительно очень увлекательная.

3. Катя, чей брат учится в моем классе, выиграла чемпионат мира.

b) Translate the text into English.

Зоопарк - это место, куда люди ходят с самого детства. Животные, которых там можно увидеть, представляют разные страны и континенты. Люди, которые часто посещают зоопарк, даже имеют там своих любимых животных. В некоторых зоопарках животным можно давать специальную еду, которая куплена здесь же. День, когда вся семья идет в зоопарк, обычно очень радостный, особенно для детей.




Exercise 1: 1)which 2)who 3)where 4)whose

Exercise 2:

1)Builder is someone who/that builds houses

2) A circus is a place where we can see acrobats.

3)A tiger is an animal which/that lives in the jungle.

4)A supermarket is the place where we do the shopping.

5)An elephant is an animal whose ears are big.

Exercise 3:

1 My mother,_whose________ name is Elizabeth, is a piano teacher.

2 She's the woman ___who's_____________married to an actor.

3 Celine is the girl __whose____________brother won the prize.

4 Helen is the person___whose___________car is outside our house.

5 Ann's the one___who's_____________ a History teacher.

6 Lucas is the man ___who's___________helping us move house.

7 That's the woman __whose___________son just graduated from university.

8 . ___Whose ___concert did you go to?

Exercise 4:

1) who /that (S- notomitted)

6)which/that (S- not omitted)

11)which/that (O-omitted)

16)who / that(S-not omitted)

2)which/that (O-omitted)



17)which/that(S-not omitted)

3)which/that(S- not omitted)

8)who / that(S-not omitted)

13)who / that(S-not omitted)

18)who/that (S- not omitted)

4) who(m) / that(O-omitted)

9)who(m) / that(O-omitted)

14)which/that(S-not omitted)

19)which/that (O-omitted)

5) who / that(S-not omitted)

10)which/that(S-not omitted)

15)who / that(S-not omitted)

20)who(m) / that(O-omitted)

Exercise 5:











Exercise 6:









Exercise 7:

1) who (ND-not omitted)


11)when (D-omitted)

2) who(m) / that (D-omitted)

7),who...,(ND-not omitted)


3),who..., (ND-not omitted)

8),whose...,(ND-not omitted)


4) which / that(D-omitted)


14),whose...,(ND-not omitted)

5) ,which..,(ND-not omitted)

10)which/that(S-not omitted)


Exercise 8:

Translation (suggested answers)

a)1) The artist who painted this picture lived in the 19th century.

2) The book you read in the summer is really very exciting.

3) Kate, whose brother studies in my class, has won the world championship.

b) The zoo is a place where people go from their childhood on. Animals which you can see there come from different countries and continents. People who often go to the zoo even have their favourite animals there. In some zoos you can give the animals special food which has been bought there. A day when the whole family goes to the zoo is usually very jolly, especially



More exercises:

1) Underline any relative pronouns that can be left out in these sentences.

1 I think that my boss is the person who I admire most.

2 Harry, who was tired, went to bed very early.

3 Were taking the train that leaves at 6.00.

4 Have you seen the book that I left here on the desk?

5 The film which we liked most was the French one.

6 My radio, which isn't very old, has suddenly stopped working.

7 The clothes which you left behind are at the reception desk.

8 The couple who met me at the station took me out to dinner.

9 Last week I ran into an old friend who I hadn't seen for ages.

10 Don't cook the meat

2 )Replace the relative pronouns in italics with that, where possible.

1 This is the magazine which I told you about.

2 John's flat, which is in the same block as mine, is much larger.

3 The girl whose bag I offered to carry turned out to be an old friend.

4 The policeman who arrested her had recognized her car.

5 I work with someone who knows you.

6 We don't sell goods which have been damaged.

7 Brighton, which is on the south coast, is a popular holiday resort.

8 I don't know anyone whose clothes would fit you.

9 There's a cafe near here which serves very good meals.

10 People who park outside get given parking tickets.

3 )Underline the most suitable word in each sentence.

1 My friend Jack, that I who / whose parents live in Glasgow, invited me to spend Christmas in Scotland.

2 Here's the computer program that / whom / whose I told you about.

3 I don't believe the story that / who / whom she told us.

4 Peter comes from Witney, that / who / which is near Oxford.

5 This is the gun with that I whom / which the murder was committed.

6 Have you received the parcel whom / whose / which we sent you?

7 Is this the person who I which / whose you asked me about?

8 That's the girl that I who / whose brother sits next to me at school.

9 The meal, that I which / whose wasn't very tasty, was quite expensive.

10 We didn't enjoy the play that / who / whose we went to see

4 )Put one suitable word in each space, or leave the space blank where possible.

The story so far:

Jane Piatt, (1) travelling to London because of a mysterious letter, is the only person (2).....................witnesses a murder at Victoria Station. The detective to (3).....................she gives her statement then disappears.Jane goes to an office in Soho to answer the letter 4)..................... she had received. There she discovers that her uncle Gordon, (5).....................

lives in South America, has sent her a small box (6).....................she is only to open if in trouble. ) Jane, (7).....................parents have never mentioned an Uncle Gordon, is suspicious of the box, (8).....................she gives to her friend Tony. They go to Scotland Yard and see Inspector Groves, (9).....................has not heard of the Victoria Station murder, (10).....................was not reported to the police. Jane gives Inspector Groves the murdered man's ticket, (11).....................she found beside his body. Then Jane and Tony decide to go to Redhill,(12).....................was the town (1 3).....................the murdered man had come from. On the train they meet a man,(14).....................face is somehow familiar to Jane, (15).....................says he knows her Uncle Gordon.

5) Put a suitable relative pronoun in each space, or leave the space blank where possible.

1 My bike, ..........I had left at the gate, had disappeared.

2 The shoes.....................I bought were the ones.....................I tried on first.

3 The bag in.....................the robbers put the money was found later.

4 The medicine.....................the doctor gave me had no effect at all.

5 Peter,.....................couldn't see the screen, decided to change his seat.

6 I really liked that made me this morning.

7 What was the name of your friend.....................tent we borrowed?

8 The flight.....................Joe was leaving on was cancelled.




1 1 who. 2 none. 3 none. 4 that. 5 which. 6 none. 7 which. 8 none. 9 who. 10 that.

2 1 that I told you about. 2 not possible. 3 not possible. 4 that arrested her. 5 that

knows you. 6 that have been damaged. 7 not possible. 8 not possible. 9 that serves

very good meals. 10 that park outside.

3 1 whose. 2 that. 3 that. 4 which. 5 which. 6 which.7 who. 8 whose. 9 which.10 that.

4 1 who. 2 who. 3 whom. 4 blank. 5 who. 6 which. 7 whose. 8 which. 9 who. 10

which. 11 which. 12 which. 13 blank. 14 whose. 15 who.

5 1 which. 2 blank, blank. 3 which. 4 blank. 5 who. 6 blank. 7 whose. 8 blank.





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